Western Forest Complex
  An Untouched Wilderness in the Borderland of Thailand and Myanmar

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 Protected areas
 Geography &

 Flora & fauna

 What to see & do

Flora and Fauna

The Western Forest Complex is located on the crossroad of four biogeographical zones: Indo-Chinese, Sino-Malayan, Indo-Burmese, and Eastern India. These biogeographical overlaps have provided a unique assemblage of Asian species and much of the basis for the designation of Huai Kha Khaeng and Thung Yai Naresuan wildlife sanctuaries as UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1991.

The size of the Western Forest Complex -
18 730 square km - endows it with a wealth of plants and animals including 153 mammal species, 490 bird species, 41 reptiles and 108 species of fish. It is also a vital source of water. The conservation value of the Complex has already been weakened by reservoirs (Si Nakharin and Khao Laem), by a through road to Three Pagoda Pass and by associated human settlements.

The Kayah-Karen mountain rainforests ecoregion ranks among the highest for bird and mammal species richness in Indochina. But
Thung Yai Naresuan - Huai Kha Khaeng are one of the few protected areas in Thailand large enough to support some wide-ranging mammal species in the long term. The sanctuaries are unique in supporting a diverse group of large mammal fauna, including tiger, 10 species of primates (all five of the region’s macaques), three bovids, elephant, tapir, and four of Thailand’s five deer species. The 27 carnivores recorded in the sanctuaries represent 75% of the total carnivore population of Thailand and 63% of the carnivores of mainland Southeast Asia. The rich bird fauna represent about one third of the birds of mainland Southeast Asia and 57% of the resident forest birds of Thailand.

In the southern part of the Western Forest Complex, Kaeng Krachan - the largest national park in Thailand - supports 41 mammal species. The population of elephants constitutes one of the largest elephant populations in the country. In recent years, monitoring of tiger and prey species has been conducted along the Phetchaburi river inside the park. There are 220 bird recorded including four hornbill species and fresh water crocodile is found only in one other protected area in Thailand.

For more detailed information on flora and fauna of the Western Forest Complex see the protected areas pages.
Wild plants - infinite variety of colours and fragrances Mystic fog - the breath of jungle Beautiful waterfalls - source of water for Thailand One of the last habitats of beasts of prey Abundant Wildlife Colourful blossoms - endless inspiration


Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic

The project is funded by the Government of the Czech Republic (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and conducted with support of the National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department (DNP), Thai Ecotourism and Adventure Travel Association (TEATA), Foundation of Western Forest Complex Conservation (FWFCC) and Tourism Promotion Society of Kanchanaburi (TSK). For more information write to us at info[at]westernforest[dot]org. Webdesign and photographs by David Kučera. Translation to Thai by Kris Dhiradityakul.

National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department